Monday, December 23, 2019

Goals for 2020

Work on my Blog to update family history

Friday, January 18, 2019

Ingram, John and Sarah. Son Evan Ingram and son James Ingram

 His son James Ingram was born, according to my records, in 1828 in Radnorshire and because of trouble "drinking wine with the maids" came to the US. He paid someone $600 to serve for him in the Civil War. He had four wives: Mary ?, Rose Ann Brown Ewing, whom he married three months after Mary's death, Eleanor Steward Miskimen, and Sarah Clark. \par  \par In John Ingram's will (married to Sarah) he was living in Bridgeville when he \par died he mentioned a granddaughter, Diana Ingram.  The children listed were \par John, James, Sharlot Thomas, Sarah Worthing, Mary Jones, Elizabeth Worthing, \par Ann Black, and noted his son Evan was dead and left nothing to Evan's heirs. Evan's heirs had been adopted by his brother James Ingram. \par This will was witnessed by William Carothers and George Carothers.  The will was probated in December 1870.}

\ansi\ansicpg1252\cocoartf1504\cocoasubrtf810{\fonttbl\f0\fswiss\fcharset0 Helvetica;}{\colortbl;\red255\green255\blue255;}{\*\expandedcolortbl;;}\pard\tx560\tx1120\tx1680\tx2240\tx2800\tx3360\tx3920\tx4480\tx5040\tx5600\tx6160\tx6720\pardirnatural\partightenfactor0\f0\fs24 \cf0 MELIN 10. \par  \par C/P12 (p.36). Felin llwyn bedw, parish of Llananno (SO 103 738): on as mall brook tributary to the R. Eithon. \par  \par I quote Tucker: 'The name is marked on the Ist ed. 1" OS map, but is not shown on the Tithe Maps for Llanbister or Llananno, nor on the 6 "OS map of 1904. There are no signs on the ground, but the position indicated would seem to be the only possible site in the vicinity. [He was right'] This is a very doubtful mill site, however. \par  \par The OS 2" sketch map of 1816, held at the National Library of Wales, shows the mill on the cast side of the brook south of the road. The ground in the immediate area is very disturbed and broken, and it is impossible to make any sense of that which one sees today. The brook still forms the boundary between the parishes of Llanbister and Llananno as it did at the time of the 1st edition OS 25" plan published in 1889. \par  \par This plan shows an interesting diversion of the boundary from the brook]. It suddenly diverges from the stream and follows a pecked line marked 'Tk.S.', which in 'OS speak' means 'Track of Stream'. It then swings sharply to the south west at a point marked 'F.W', which means 'Face of Wall'. I think that the 'Face of Wall' was the end wall of a roofless building (marked A on Fig.3)) which shows quite clearly and scales to about 20ft. by 15ft. on plan. The 'Track of Stream' may well have been a short leat lead\'a8ing from the brook to an undershot wheel on the end of the bulldlng. There is also a further roofless building (B), which scales to about 20ft. by 1Oft. on plan. \par  \par Building A is, I think, probably the ruined mill. By 1904 the 2nd edition of the 25" plan does not show these particular features, although the boundary follows the same course across the ground. The site is on the Llananno side of the boundary, not in Llanbister. \par  \par There certainly was a Felin LIwyn beclw, and the Llananno Census returns give its occupants: \par  \par 1841   'Llwyn beddw Mill', John Ingram (50), miller, with his wife Sarah and three children; \par 1851   'Llwynbedow Mill', Joseph Thomas (22), miller, with William Thickens (61), 'Miller (Servant)'. \par  \par There is no record of the mill after 1851 in the Census returns, and one must assume that it went out of business between 1851 and 1861. It was most probably a corn mill of eighteenth century construction, and it is possible that it was built on the site of earlier medieval or post medieval mills since it would appear to have had an undershot wheel. \par  \par That the mill at least of eighteenth century date is made more certain by its association with the farm Maesllan which lies in Llananno parish about a kilometre to the north west. The Tithe Map for Llanano shows that field \par no. 1954 corresponds more or less to field no. 1063 on the OS 1st ed.25" plan. The Tithe Apportionment of 1841 records that this field, which straddles the boundary between Llananno and Llanbister, was called'Mil\'a8lfold' and that it belonged to the Maesllan farm. The Tithe Map shows a small building in the same position as Building A, with the parish boun\'a8dary taking a sharp turn around it in the same way. \par  \par MaesIlan Farm and Corn Mill were advertised with about 150 acres of meadow and pasture land to be let and entered upon at the next Lady Day in the Hereford Journal for 28th August, 1808, and again similarly described for letting five years later in the issue for 13th January, 1813. Mr G.Hughes, who has farmed locally all his life, told me that he had been told that if one dug into a bank by the western edge of the Millfold field, the ashes from a drying kiln could still be found. \par  \par Edmund Mortimer had a water mill at 'Thlananno' in 1304. Later, in the account of the Mortimer estates for 1356/7, it was recorded that the mill house at 'Lanhannow' was newly made using the lord's timber, and roofed with task work for 18s, and one grindstone was bought for. 16s. 8d. The 'farm' (lease) of Llananno Mill was let to David Lloid andDavid ap Cadwgan and was worth \'a34 in 1392/3. 11 While I am not saying that this was indeed the site of the medieval mill in Llananno, it is by the main river for the area. Furthermore the A483 road which passes by it is an old north south 'through road; so the connection is notimpossible. \par  \par Records from Llananno Parish Register, transcribed by Lloyd Lewis. \par  \par Baptisms \par Abode              Occupation        
  Vicar \par 9. Apr. 3    1814 Evan son John & Sarah Ingram  LletherServantDavid Morgan \par  \par Marriages. \par 9524.04.1812JonesIsaacSLlanbister \par IngramMaryXLlanannoBanns \par  \par 217.12.1813IngramJohnXLlananno \par LewisSarahSLlanannoBanns \par  \par 823.09.1839ThomasGeorge22BachelorBlacksmithSMaesyrhelem \par IngramCharlotte20SpinsterServant maidXCriggin \par Thomas ThomasBlacksmithJohn IngramMillerBanns \par  \par 2926.02.1846JonesDavid26BachelorServant manSTynyberth, AbbeycwmhirIngramMary22SpinsterServant MaidXLower Llethr, LlanannoJoseph JonesFarmerJohn IngramlabourerBanns \par  \par 3414.05.1849LloydWilliam30BachelorServantXCwmporth, AbbeycwmhirIngramAnne24SpinsterServantXCrychell, LlanannoBenjamin LloydGrocerRichard Ingram     *Banns \par  \par [S = Signed    X = mark] \par Witnesses in Italics \par  \par

 His son James Ingram was born, according to my records, in 1828 in Radnorshire and because of trouble "drinking wine with the maids" came to the US. He paid someone $600 to serve for him in the Civil War. He had four wives: Mary ?, Rose Ann Brown Ewing, whom he married three months after Mary's death, Eleanor Steward Miskimen, and Sarah Clark. \par  \par In John Ingram's will (married to Sarah) he was living in Bridgeville when he \par died he mentioned a granddaughter, Diana Ingram.  The children listed were \par John, James, Sharlot Thomas, Sarah Worthing, Mary Jones, Elizabeth Worthing, \par Ann Black, and noted his son Evan was dead and left nothing to Evan's heirs. Evan's heirs had been adopted by his brother James Ingram. \par This will was witnessed by William Carothers and George Carothers.  The will was probated in December 1870.}

Tuesday, February 20, 2018

Week 8 of the 52 Ancestors in 52 Weeks was "Heirloom."

Eight-nine years old, alive and well, the Ole Philco has been passed down for three generations in our family, from Grandma and Grandpa to Dad, and to me. It is destined for my son and grandchildren. This 1929 Philco radio originated in Philadelphia, lived in Illinois for 30 years, and since resided in Fullerton, Brea, and Hemet, California, and currently Buena Park, California. My first memory of the Ole Philco was Grandma and Grandpa walking out to the sun porch every evening at 6 pm taking their seats in large wooden rockers with black leather cushions, sitting back and listening to the news.  According to dad, this was their nightly ritual. After my grandparents sold their house in 1958, Dad acquired the Ole Philco.
In the 1950s, Minnie Pearl’s comedy routines belted out "How-w-w-DEE-E-E-E! I'm jes' so proud to be here!” Pearl told monologues involving her relatives. Other favorites were "Who knows what evil lurks in the hearts of men? The Shadow knows!" on the The Shadow Knows. The Green Hornet or Mom’s favorite The Kate Smith Hour frequently played on The Ole Philco Every morning my sister and I ate breakfast with David and Rickie Nelson listening to The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet.
 Growing up, we listened most nights to Dad sing along, strumming his acoustic guitar, with Hank Williams, Johnny Cash and Eddie Arnold using the Ole Philco as a karaoke machine before karaoke originated in the 1970s.
Its most legendary program broadcast on Sunday, October 30, 1938, when millions of radio listeners were stunned to hear radio news alerts announcing the arrival of Martians. They panicked when they learned of the Martians' brutal and seemingly relentless attack on Earth. What the radio listeners heard was a segment of Orson Welles' adaptation of the well-known book, War of the Worlds by H. G. Wells. Many of the listeners believed what they heard on the radio was real.
Dad kept the vintage radio in mint condition. Through the years he refurbished the oak cabinet and the beautiful cutout grille with the correct reproduction grille cloth. He scoured garage sales and Goodwill’s purchasing tubes to replace the worn out ones. He was proud of the Ole Philco. We all were. It brings back cherished memories of Grandma and Grandpa, Dad, childhood, and times gone by. Currently, its place of honor is a corner of my family room. It now plays mostly talk radio programs. Television, movies, CDs, MP3 players, and IPods have replaced the Ole Philco for music.
I love the quality of the sound that comes through the Ole Philco and it even smells good, too. It's a smell of age, of old cloth and wood. I’m proud to be the owner of The Ole Philco.

Wednesday, February 14, 2018

Week 7 of the 52 Ancestors in 52 Weeks was "Valentine."

My Valentine
Tribute To Mom

This page is dedicated to all who preceded us and to those who will follow and to mom, Grace Lorraine Worthing, who gave a mother's love and encouragement as no one else could.
The more I learned about my mother, Gracie and her world, the more I admire her. I grew up not knowing much about my mother's childhood as much as I should have. Now after her death, I have put together stories she told us as we were growing up and this has helped me to understand and appreciate her more. I came to have a high regard for her fortitude, strengths in adversity, self awareness and genuine respect and love for other people. I marvel at her will to survive and thrive in the face of extreme circumstances. This seems to be built into her genes. She follows a long line of strong women.
Her grandmother Sarah Ingram Worthing, a Welsh immigrant, traveled by covered wagon to California and back to Ohio along with her husband, Richard with two children during the Gold Rush of 1849. Grandmother Julia set up three homesteads: Pennsylvania, Michigan and Wisconsin while raising four children.
Nancy Ames, her mother grew up on a homestead in freezing winters of Lake Koshkonong, Wisconsin, later living in Milton Junction, Wisconsin near Janesville. Nancy was one of 10 children who was orphaned in the winter 1893 at the age of 10 years old. No one should have to have endured this at age 10 ... starving, freezing cold, living on a lake in a one room cabin with no heat and very little clothing and very little food Dad, Ira Daniel Ames fished for a living and really tried to keep his family warm and fed but they just couldn't seem to make it. They must have been so poor. The winter of 1893 was particularly cold. On the morning of March 5, 1893 a blizzard hit them hard. Nancy’s mother, Cornelia Palon Ames and her 2 month old infant actually froze to death and died from probable starvation heart broken over the death of his wife and child. He never really revovered. In 2 years Ira, too was dead. He died mainly of a broken heart on September 21, 1895. Nancy ended up in an orphanage in Sparta, Wisconsin. After Nancy got older, she met and married Ludwig Hansen. This marriage produced a child, Blanche. This was an unhappy marriage ending in divorce. After the divorce, Nancy met and married a young man, Charles Worthing,  from Iowa and they eventually settled in Truro, Iowa where Gracie was born.
Gracie entered the world at a mere 1.5 pounds. Grace was a fighter and was placed in a shoe box for a bed wrapped in cotton so the oral history goes. Her mother cuddled her, nursed her and held her lovingly praying the whole time to God to save her baby girl. God answered her prayers and Gracie started thriving and gaining weight. She made it! Gracie grew up very small and petite a happy life in Truro, Madison County, Iowa during the depression with her sister Blanche. Life was a struggle for food and shelter.
In the years 1928-1932 Gracie experienced two great losses, the loss at age 12 of her beloved mother from a brain tumor and at 16 the loss of her dad from pancreatic cancer. Both crisis occurred to a young woman at the same time her half sister Blanche whom she'd grown up with was sent to Illinois to live with a relative. I presume this makes one a stronger person. I cannot imagine losing a mother at age 12 nor then losing your father and then your sister. How tragic.
Mom, Grace remembers growing up in Truro during the depression era. America battled the Great Depression and the whole world seemed to be changing. The economy struggled: the average weekly wage for a family being only $2.39. Wall Street floundered as banks closed across the country. People lost their homes, their farms and bankruptcy was prevalent. For families, every cent counted, and none could be spared on frivolous luxury of any kind. Grace would have been 12 years old in 1929 and 15 at the heart of the depression in 1932. Grace's mom had died in 1928 and Blanche was now living in Illinois with Ludwig. Gracie was living with her dad, Charles Worthing who was ill during the Christmas season in 1932. Times were tough. They lived in town and Charley worked at the school as a custodian. Most of their other relatives lived on farms so in this way they were real fortunate as Gracie remembered trading eggs for pork chops and meat and milk. They never remembered going hungry. Iwoa winters were cold.
Grace survived and then went on to live with her half brother in Birds Run, Ohio until she was 18 when she joined her sister in Illinois.
In spite of all, mom survived to marry Robert, the love of her life, raise two girls, provide college educations for them, serve her community by volunteering at the American Legion, the PTA, and voter’s registration and giving of her time to care for sick and dying family members as needed.
I remember my mom and how loving she was and thoughtful. She loved her mother in law and father in law and always said they were like parents to her and you could “never find better people”. Aunt Lola, my dad’s sister was like a sister to my mom. She loved her dearly. Mom sat with grandpa when he was dying and stayed with Aunt Lola after Lola lost her husband Theron. Mom comforted and stayed with her cousin, Zola in Long Beach for a month when Zola lost her husband. She was there for her daughters when, Nancy’s husband died, for Kevin her grandchild in the loss of his dad and for Mary and her two boys when things did not work out. Mom always had an open door. Mom was one of the most CARING Individuals one would ever meet.
We were truly blessed to know this special woman and privileged to have
her as a loving mother, aunt, grandmother, and great grandmother.

Monday, February 5, 2018

Week 6 of the 52 Ancestors in 52 Weeks was "Favorite Name."


My grandmother, Nancy Ames Hansen Worthing, was nothing more to me than a name on a family tree before I took on the task of writing about her.  I was always curious about the grandmother for whom I was named. That curiosity led me to find out more about her.  I know a little about her from Mom’s faded recollections, census records, newspaper articles, divorce papers, pictures, and a death certificate. Nancy died from a brain tumor when Mom was twelve years old. My mom, Grace’s memories faded throughout the years. Mom remembered her walking her to school and as the mother who held her close, hugged her a lot, and read stories to her in bed on rainy days. To honor and remember her, Mom and her cousin Margaret named their daughters Nancy.  

Tuesday, January 30, 2018

Week 4 of the 52 Ancestors in 52 Weeks was "Invite to Dinner."

A Sprinkle of This and a Dash of That…

            Meals make memories. An important part of family life is food, so why not family history? Some of my fondest memories from childhood are the times I spent in my Grandma’s kitchen. Food and food traditions is an important ingredient in every family’s history.  To me food is a connection. It is what connects us to people and places and where we came from.  Memories are built around food.
I learned to cook from my Grandma. She cooked breakfast, lunch, and dinner every day, which I took for granted. Memories of making strawberry pie, jello and kekse are some of my happiest. Her  yellow kitchen was small and compact with a large window above the stove which filled the space with natural light and vibrant colors which gave it a feeling of a happy place.
When we cooked with Grandma we donned hairnets and aprons with big pockets to match hers. There was a special drawer in the kitchen for them and my Grandma had made two pint sized aprons for my sister, Mary and I to wear. 
Grandma made German beef roulade, kraut soup and beer brats to name a few ethnic recipes she got from her mother. Flour to knead, a pinch of salt, a sprinkle of baking soda, and sugar all characterize my Grandma’s recipes. Grandma’s generation (1887-1969) cooked largely from experience, not precise recipes. They needed no reminders to chop the onion, use a certain size pan, or pre-heat the oven. When sharing recipes with friends, they jotted down only the essentials.
            I remember hearing a story about Mom sharing a 4th of July Dessert Salad recipe with a friend. Mom gave Helen the list of Grandma’s standard ingredients for her “24 Hour Dessert Salad”. 
1 cup fruit cocktail
1 c pineapple
1 c coconut
1 c oranges
1 c marshmallows
1 c sour cream
2 c rice (about)
Mom heard no more about it. Weeks later Mom asked Helen how her salad turned out. Helen hesitated and then blurted out, “Yeah, I used it but you didn’t tell me I had to cook the rice and chill the salad over night.” As I said, they shared recipes by just jotting down the essentials. I too have fond memories centered around the kitchen and my family. Our family still laughs in jest over my first cake.  I’ll never forget my first cake. The recipe said to mix by hand…and that’s exactly what I did. Mom walked into the kitchen to see me with both hands right in the cake mix batter, mixing away. Of course I  cried  at my "big" blunder.  Now I can look back and laugh laugh at my memory of making my first cake.
            I love Grandma’s cookbook.  It has a special place in my cupboard.  I use it a lot.  In it are some of her best recipes, mock chicken legs, fried potatoes, homemade bread, and Christmas Kekse (cookies), German shortbreads and hazelnut macaroons. Her personal notes align the margins. “Too much salt”, use only ½ teaspoon” underlined or “add more sugar”. Grandma’s strawberry shortcake and pie were renowned. My sister and I watched Grandma make strawberry shortcake. She poured flour into a mixing bowl, added sugar, and a pinch of salt, some baking soda, warm milk and melted butter. Then, she stirred it with a fork.  When finished, she gave it the finger test, running her index finger around the edge of the bowl and licking the mixture. If it was not quite ready she added more flour or more melted butter or a pinch of salt. She never used a recipe, just mixed up the ingredients.  She then picked up the shortcake dough and rolled it around in the palms of her hands making small balls.  When ready, to her liking she placed them on the baking sheet. She gently punched the center of each one with her thumb making a slight indentation ready to pop in the oven after dinner. I can make shortcake without a recipe and mine turn out melt in your mouth delicious, just like Grandma’s.
Fried chicken was a specialty in Grandma’s kitchen.  She poured flour into a paper bag with salt and pepper and dried herbs from her garden. She dropped in the legs, thighs, breasts, and wings. Closing the bag, she shook it vigorously. It was fun for Mary and me to take turns shaking the bag. Picking the chicken, out of the bag with her hands she placed the evenly coated chicken in the frying pans filled with Crisco.  Grandma sprinkled paprika on the chicken and then browned the chicken on both sides. After browning she placed them in the roaster and put the chicken in the oven to finish cooking. We’ve never been able to duplicate the exact flavor of Grandma’s coating for her chicken. It’s not written down anywhere in her cookbook or recipe cards. I guess she kept it a secret just like Colonel Sanders.     
Custard was another specialty. Grandma scalded milk on top the stove, while beating up eggs, sugar, a pinch of salt, and some vanilla in another bowl.  She added the scalded milk to the mixture and stirred it with a spoon to melt the sugar. She gave it the finger test and if it needed more eggs she added them or added more sugar if not sweet enough.  Then, she poured the custard into a large baking pan. She inserted the baking pan into another larger baking pan filled with hot water and popped them into the oven for an hour. When finished she sprinkled grated nutmeg over the top.
I have a Cranberry Fluff Mold recipe of Grandma’s where she wrote along the margin. In the recipe she wrote and underlined, “add 1 pt of cream whipped and folded in.” Underlined “don’t beat anymore fold in”. When the mold was finished and ready to turn out on the platter she wrote “to remove set on platter over mold and turn upside down and decorate with leaves, lemon or Galex 35 ¢ at the florist shop and put canned peaches and pears over leaves and put some red coloring on the peaches and pears”. Along the margin of this recipe she wrote, “Dab just a spot of coloring on peaches and pears with your fingertip o”. I assumed the “o” meant the size of the spot. I am not sure what Galex is.
When Grandma finished baking or serving her dishes, her large brown eyes sparkled as she looked at her creations. She always said, “Das ist gutJa. Das ist gut“. These are just a few of Grandma’s recipes I was fortunate to preserve  for my family history. No fast food for Grandma. Everything was made from scratch.  

Friday, January 12, 2018

Week 2 of the 52 Ancestors in 52 Weeks was "Favorite Photo."

One of mine is this photo of my Mother, Grace Lorraine Worthing Fermazin. February 9, 1917-April 2001.
 Grace Lorraine Worthing on her wedding day. February 7, 1942.  I have always liked this photo of my mother.  I selected this photo because my mother is so beautiful in this picture. She married Robert F. Fermazin at St. Paul's Lutheran Church in Aurora, Illinois.

My mom was as beautiful on the inside as she was on the outside.  I miss her so much!
Love you Mom.

Thursday, January 4, 2018

52 Ancestors in 52 Weeks ~ Week 1 January 4, 2018: by Nancy Fermazin: Start~ Found the Maiden Name of Adolphus Ames' wife: Sarah Julia Rice daughter of Ephraim Rice and Sarah Whitney

  I have decided to accept Amy Johnson Crow's  "52 Ancestors In 52 Weeks" challenge. The first prompt in the challenge is "start", so I am choosing to start with a break through in one of my Brick Walls: Sarah Julia Rice wife of Adolphus Ames. Sarah Ames is my second great grandmother.

 I had a great genealogy break through this past week.  I found the death certificate for one of Adolphus AMES' sons: William Henry Ames

In the Ancestry hints I received a hint and verified the hint.  Henry Ames who was born in 1847 in Pennsylvania ended up in Michigan on the family's migration to Wisconsin. In Michigan he went by William H Ames.  On his Michigan death certificate he listed his parents as Dolphus Ames and Julis Rice!

I had my DNA tested on Ancestry DNA. I matched with Joel Rice who I had been following in McKean County Pennsylvania.  I suspected Joel Rice was the brother to my Adolphus' wife but I could not prove it.  Well now I am pretty confident that Joel Rice is Julia Ames' brother.

At least now I know that Julia's maiden name was RICE.  Have lots more proofing to do but I am on the trail. My mother's first cousin Roger Family Tree DNA matched with Ames in Michigan. I feel the Ames he matched in Michigan with are an uncle's family of Adolphus Ames, a Samuel Ames who is his brother.  

I also found that my William H Ames served in the Civil War.

 Name: William H Ames
Residence: Bainbridge, Michigan
Age at Enlistment: 17
Enlistment Date: 23 Mar 1865
Rank at enlistment: Private
Enlistment Place: Bainbridge, Michigan
State Served: Michigan
Survived the War?: Yes
Service Record: Enlisted in Company U, Michigan 24th Infantry Regiment on 25 Mar 1865.Mustered out on 28 Jun 1865 at Detroit, MI. [served 3 months]

Found  widow pension records for William H Ames wife.

On the death certificate it looks like he was buried in  Portland, Indiana.  Will have to pursue that lead also. 

LOTS MORE SLEUTHING TO DO. But THANK YOU Ancestry for these Ancestry hints.

Monday, September 5, 2016

Sunday, July 31, 2016

Richard Seth Worthing

         According to Richard Worthing’s obituary[1], he was born in Wales. His Christening record stated it as, Llananno, Radnorshire, Wales which is now the Powys, or eastern Wales along the English border. Llananno is described as   bucolic rolling hills covered with carpets of bluebells and grazing sheep. It is next to the  Offa Dyke, the River Ithon, and the ruins of the Castle Bank, sometimes known as Castle Llananno . It is no longer a castle but mainly just a rocky hill sitting on a summit, the remains an ancient Castle called “TY yn y Bwlch”. By 1840, Castle Bank was a manor where locals farmed and took care of the sheep for the owner. Offa’s Dyke is a 50 foot wide dirt well ditch, running along the English Welsh border, built in the 18th century by the Anglo Saxon King Offa of Mercia to keep out the Welsh. A path runs along side it nowadays making it a popular place to hike through the eastern countryside. Richard, his cousin or brother, Thomas Worthing[2] ( depending upon the research ) worked at Castle Bank as day laborers farming.  Richard’s future wife Sarah Ingram was a servant girl at the Castle Bank.
            At the ages of twenty-four and twenty-five, both young men were married. Richard had married Sarah Ingram and Thomas, Elisabeth George.[3]  I  envisioned Richard and Thomas sitting by the banks of the  River Ithon.  They were dusty, dirty and sweaty after a hard days labor in the field planting or harvesting crops for the manor lord, discussing their hopes, dreams, the politics of the day, reflecting on life, and what it would be like to live in America. Dreamers. I think most young men think of their future. America would be the place to be. They both being illegitimate children of Mary Worthin[4] had little chance of owning land or careers in Wales.
”I’ve been reading the ads for farmers to emigrate to America. Sarah’s uncle went  and his letters say you can own your own land, acres and acres of it, all yours. We wouldn’t be beholding to the Hamers, the Merredith’s and the Pugh’s”[5].
         Brushing his hair back, Richard with his chiseled jawline and deep set blazing blue eyes, wavy blond hair glittering in the sun, stared intently at Thomas. He took a long pause before he verbalized his feelings.
 “I’d like to give Sarah and Sarah Ann a better life. I’ve enough saved to pay our way to America. Besides I just need to talk to John about this. He may have a few sovereigns put aside for emergency and might give me some[6].
What about you, Thomas?
            The Rebecca Riots[7] were taking place in South and Mid Wales at this time. These were a series of protests undertaken by local farmers and agricultural workers in response to a perceived unfair taxation[8].  The firstappearance of Rebecca, as the members called themselves, occurred in 1839. Although this precedes the economic events of 1842, the early appearances of Rebecca were sporadic isolated outbursts, with the true body of rioting not beginning until the winter of 1842. Although these early 'uprisings' were few and uncommon, they were the first appearance of mobs dressed in the guise of Rebecca. These gangs became known as Merched Beca (Welsh for "Rebecca's Daughters") or merely the Rebeccas. The origin of their name is said to be a verse in the Bible, Genesis 24:60 - 'And they blessed Rebekah and said unto her, Thou art our sister, be thou the mother of thousands of millions, and let thy seed possess the gate of those which hate them'. This verse was shouted many a time from the religious urban dwellers. Richard and Thomas were not part of the Rebeccas.Prior to destroying the toll gates, 'Rebecca' would call to his followers who were also dressed as women and perform a scene which involved the following words:[9]
“Rebecca: "What is this my children? There is something in my way. I cannot go on...."
Rioters: "What is it, mother Rebecca? Nothing should stand in your way,"
Rebecca: "I do not know my children. I am old and cannot see well."
Rioters: "Shall we come and move it out of your way mother Rebecca?"
Rebecca: "Wait! It feels like a big gate put across the road to stop your old mother."
Rioters: "We will break it down, mother. Nothing stands in your way."
Rebecca: "Perhaps it will open...Oh my dear children, it is locked and bolted. What can be done?"
Rioters: "It must be taken down, mother. You and your children must be able to pass."
Rebecca: "Off with it then, my children."

This would then in turn lead to the destruction of the toll gates.
Although not all members of the mob would wear women's clothes, those that did, often in white gowns, would also blacken their faces or otherwise wear masks. The attacks were accompanied by much noise; and in the earliest attacks, a mock trial would also take place.[10]
         Wales was suffering a depression[11] and prices for grain harvests had collapsed and farming communities were in dire poverty. Families were forced to buy corn at famine prices and they could not afford the high prices of butter, cattle, and sheep.[12] By late 1843, the riots had stopped. Although Rebecca had failed to produce an immediate effect on the lives of the farmers she had sought to serve, the very nature of a leaderless uprising of the downtrodden peasantry in an attempt to obtain justice from an unfair system, was an important socio-political event within Wales. In the aftermath of the riots, some rent reductions were achieved, the toll rates were improved (although destroyed toll-houses were rebuilt) and the protests prompted several reforms, including a Royal Commission into the question of toll roads”.[13]
         According to Richard’s marriage certificate, it named Richard Hamer as his father,[14] the man his servant mother had an affair with.  It was common in
those days in Europe for land owners to father children with their maids and servants. In England and Wales, if the father was known he was sited by the Church and paid support for the child until the age of maturity.[15] We know that Richard’s mother, Mary Worthin, never married Richard Hamer.  In 1824 at the age of 36, Mary is married to Edward Crowthers and Richard, Mary, and Edward are all living in the same residence in Llananno.[16] This marriage ended with Mary’s death in 1842.  I imagine, having grown up with the stigma of being a bastard child and support supplemented by the bastardy bonds and parish chest, this influenced Richard’s dreams of immigrating to America His lot in life in Wales would have been an agricultural laborer who would never own land. 

Richard, Thomas, and Sarah Ingram all worked at the manor. Sarah was a day servant or maid and the daughter of  John Ingram the miller.  John was a miller by trade in Wales. We don’t know if John was the owner or lessee of the mill.  Many farmers had mill rights on their property. It is likely that he was the lessee because the Welsh records show he and his family lived at the  corn mill[17] from1841-1851.[18]  The Ingrams were Baptists in Wales according to the Maesyrhelem Chapel in Llananno, Radnorshire, Wales.  The Ingrams were Baptists in Wales belonging to the Maesyrhelem Chapel in Llananno, Radnorshire, Wales. John was a miller by trade in Wales. Many farmers had mill rights on their property. Some of the mills were agricultural, but theirs was a corn mill. By the 1851 census the Ingrams are gone, but he and his wife, daughter, Elisabeth and her husband Thomas Worthing, Sharlot and her husband George Thomas, Mary and her husband, David Jones, Anne and her husband, Thomas Black, and sons James and Evan with their wives are all farmers and land owners in Guernsey County Ohio.

Little is known about the Jones’, Blacks’ and Thomas’.  However, his son James Ingram was born, according to my records, in 1828 in Radnorshire and because of trouble "drinking wine with the maids" came to the US. He paid someone $600 to serve for him in the Civil War. He had four wives: Mary Miller (Wales 1851) Rose Ann Brown(1854 Ohio), whom he married three months after Mary's death, Eleanor Stewart (Miskimens, 1861, Ohio), and Sarah Clark (1861, Coschocton).[19]
            I envisioned Richard as a young man falling in love with Sarah while they worked at the manor. I picture Sarah as a girl looking like my Ingram cousins, with deep sky blue eyes, red hair, petite carrying baskets of vegetables and wild flowers through the blue bell fields, picked along the path home to the mill. There probably were not many eliglble,  single women in this area for Richard to chose from. We have no information on how Richard and Sarah met but probably while working at the manor. Richard, age 22 and Sarah, age 17 married in 1843. They started their family immediately with the birth of Sarah Ann, February 27, 1844, their first of 15 children of which 9 reached adulthood.[20]
            I pictured Richard as an industrious, goal oriented young man, mature beyond his years, falling in love and asking Sarah’s father for her hand in marriage as was the custom in that day. This evoked pictures in my mind of Richard taking Sarah’s hand in his and asking,
“Will you marry me? I love you so much. I promise to give you a better life in America. I’ll take you to America, buy land, and raise our family. After we get there I will send for your family and bring them all to live with us.” That promise was fulfilled when Richard struck it rich in the California gold rush.[21]
John Ingram approved and the banns were announced in the Maesyrhalen, Baptist

Chapel three times over six weeks. Richard belonged to the St. Anno, Church of
England, parish in Llananno but became Baptist when he married Sarah. He was a Baptist for the remainder of his life.[22] I remember as a ten year old girl visiting my Worthing ancestors in Iowa. My mom took us to the Worthing Cemetery in Truro, Madison, Iowa to see the Baptist church she attended as a child and put flowers on the graves of her mom and dad and grandparents. It was a small stone church located in the Worthing Cemetery. In 2001, I went back to that same cemetery to lay flowers on the graves of my grandparents and great grandparents but the little church was no longer there, having been torn down to make room for more family plots.[23]   ike many other early cemeteries in Wood County, Lee Cemetery began as a family burial place. David Lee was born in March of 1828 in North Carolina. He and two brothers were farmers near Webster, in Wood County, prior to 1860. David Lee married his wife Susan about 1861 and they had six children. The cemetery originally covered about one acre but has grown considerably over the years with several additions of land.
The most prosperous rural families in this county in the 1840s through the 1860s had family cemeteries located on their property, usually near their home. There were several reasons why early settlers buried their dead in family plots. Often we hear of the isolation caused by the difficulties of travel caused by primitive roads and a lack of bridges over streams. However, the primary reason was simply that when the first settlers arrived, there were no organized communities and cemeteries in existence. Only after communities and churches, along with cemeteries were established that the efficacy of burying people in a central location was realized by local residents. This pattern was not unique to Guernsey County – it was common over the whole of the nation. Most cemeteries in the United States are the final outgrowth of individual burial places on the farms or near the homes of the earliest settlers. Later, the burial places were connected with churches, a custom that is not entirely obsolete, especially in Wood County, where some church graveyards survive.

Emigration to America
Although the number of Welsh people who emigrated to America and Australia in the nineteenth century was far lower than from less industrialised countries, such as Ireland, a significant number did leave Wales in the hope of a better life. It is estimated that about 60,000 people emigrated from Wales to the USA during the period 1850-70.
A number of factors have been suggested for emigration from Wales during the middle years of the nineteenth century. Many of the Welsh tenant farmers and farm laborers were living in poverty. Also, the unstable market in coal and steel meant that employment for many steelworkers and miners was unreliable.
When radical figures, such as Samuel Roberts ('SR'; 1800-85) and Michael D. Jones (1822-98) spoke in favor of emigration, many were ready to listen. It was often seen as an opportunity to own land at a time when most land in Wales was owned by the gentry, while others headed for the mines and quarries of the industrial areas.
Many of these emigrants to America made their way to the existing Welsh communities, such as Cambria in Pennsylvania, Gallia in Ohio and Oneida in New York State. So many Welsh people migrated to Wisconsin that the state's constitution was translated into Welsh.
The most famous instance of Welsh migration was the attempt made by Michael D. Jones and others to establish a Welsh colony in Patagonia, Argentina. The first migrants landed in Porth Madryn in 1865 and a small Welsh-speaking population remains in the area to this day.
The Trip

There were no railways at that time.

If they did have furniture to take they would have used a wagon.
However most people at that time would have just taken hand luggage.
They might have used pack horses.

I am sure they would have walked to Newtown and possibly might have walked all the way.
They might have hitched a lift from Newtown on a travelling wagon.  Roads would have been bad to travel anyway.
They would then travel to Welshpool, Oswestry, Wrexham, Chester, Liverpool.[24]